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Excavations over the past five summers have defined five periods of occupation at Oğlanqala, four ancient and one modern.

This fortress was eventually abandoned and the site lay unoccupied for over 300 years.

It was briefly reoccupied during the Late Iron Age sometime between 400 and 200 BCE (Period III) when a massive building project was undertaken in the ruins of the older fortress, but this project was abandoned in mid-construction.

From 150 BCE-100 AD (Period II) much of the mountain may have been covered by small houses belonging to agriculturalists or pastoralists.

During this period, the site may have been known as Olane, a town mentioned by Strabo in his geography.

Finally, ephemeral architecture, pottery and graves dating to the Medieval and Modern periods cover much of the site (13th to 20th centuries AD), including glazed Ilkhanid pottery (Period Ib) and Russian Imperial coins (Period Ia).

Period IV: On the Borders of Urartu (800-650 BCE) Radiocarbon analysis indicates that the citadel/fortress at Oğlanqala was first constructed in about 800 BCE.

At the same time massive fortification walls and lookout towers were built around the periphery of the site.

Construction techniques used in the fortifications and at the citadel, included roughly worked limestone blocks between 35 and 90 cm.

The walls were founded on bedrock, which had sometimes been covered with a clay or concrete surface; stone foundations were topped with a mudbrick superstructure, although most of this had eroded away.

The central citadel/fortress of Oğlanqala IV was arrayed around a very large square courtyard, 33 X 34 m, or 1122 m2.

The courtyard was probably one of the main public spaces in the citadel.

Its imposing size would have displayed the political power of the ruler of the fortress.